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Die Straßenbahn Freiburg im Breisgau, auch als Stadtbahn oder ehemals umgangssprachlich Ausführendes Verkehrsunternehmen ist die Freiburger Verkehrs AG (VAG), die auch die Schauinslandbahn sowie den Freiburger. Die Straßenbahn Freiburg im Breisgau, auch als Stadtbahn oder ehemals umgangssprachlich Ausführendes Verkehrsunternehmen ist die Freiburger Verkehrs AG (VAG), die auch die Schauinslandbahn sowie den Freiburger. Freiburger Verkehrs AG. Beitrag der Institution zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung der Stadt Freiburg und zu den Freiburger Nachhaltigkeitszielen. Die VAG leistet als. Stephan Bartosch, Oliver Benz [1]. Nach der Eröffnung der oberen Strecken ist vom Verkehrsentwicklungsplan folgendes Liniennetz vorgesehen: Oktober um Darüber hinaus waren vier weitere Strecken bereits im Planungsstadium, konnten jedoch auf Grund des Ersten Weltkriegs nicht mehr realisiert werden. Zusätzlich erneuert Cegelec die Elektronik casino jackpot slots anderem in Form von zwei neuen Flüssigkristalldisplays in der Wagenmitte und wechselt die Sitzpolster aus. Oktober gegründet wurde.

Freiburg was founded by Konrad and Duke Berthold III of Zähringen in as a free market town; [4] hence its name, which translates to "free or independent town".

Frei means "free", and Burg, like the modern English word " borough ", was used in those days for an incorporated city or town, usually one with some degree of autonomy.

Thus, it is likely that the name of this place means a "fortified town of free citizens". This town was strategically located at a junction of trade routes between the Mediterranean Sea and the North Sea regions, and the Rhine and Danube rivers.

In , Freiburg's population numbered approximately 6, people. At about that time, under the rule of Bertold V , the last duke of Zähringen, the city began construction of its Freiburg Münster cathedral on the site of an older parish church.

At the end of the thirteenth century there was a feud between the citizens of Freiburg and their lord, Count Egino II of Freiburg.

The furious count called on his brother-in-law the Bishop of Strasbourg , Konradius von Lichtenberg , for help.

The bishop responded by marching with his army to Freiburg. According to an old Freiburg legend, a butcher named Hauri stabbed the Bishop of Strasbourg to death on 29 July It was a Pyrrhic victory , since henceforth the citizens of Freiburg had to pay an annual expiation of marks in silver to the count of Freiburg until In the counts of Freiburg made another failed attempt to occupy the city during a night raid.

Eventually the citizens were fed up with their lords, and in Freiburg purchased its independence from them. The city turned itself over to the protection of the Habsburgs , who allowed the city to retain a large measure of freedom.

Most of the nobles of the city died in the battle of Sempach The patrician family Schnewlin took control of the city until the guildsmen revolted.

The guilds became more powerful than the patricians by The silver mines in Mount Schauinsland provided an important source of capital for Freiburg.

This silver made Freiburg one of the richest cities in Europe, and in Freiburg minted its own coin, the Rappenpfennig. In the cities of Freiburg, Basel , Colmar , and Breisach entered into an monetary alliance known as the Genossenschaft des Rappenpfennigs Rappenpfennig Collective.

This alliance facilitated commerce among the cities and lasted until the end of the sixteenth century.

There were 8,, people living in Freiburg between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and 30 churches and monasteries.

At the end of the fourteenth century the veins of silver were dwindling, and by only approximately 6, people still lived within Freiburg's city walls.

A university city, Freiburg evolved from its focus on mining to become a cultural centre for the arts and sciences. It was also a commercial center.

The end of the Middle Ages and the dawn of the Renaissance was a time of both advances and tragedy for Freiburg. In , the city ratified a set of legal reforms, widely considered the most progressive of the time.

The aim was to find a balance between city traditions and old Roman Law. The reforms were well received, especially the sections dealing with civil process law, punishment, and the city's constitution.

In , Freiburg decided not to take part in the Reformation and became an important centre for Catholicism on the Upper Rhine.

Erasmus moved here after Basel accepted the Reformation. In , a strong and persistent belief in witchcraft led to the city's first witch-hunt.

A plaque on the old city wall marks the spot where burnings were carried out. The seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries were turbulent times for Freiburg.

At the beginning of the Thirty Years' War there were 10,, citizens in Freiburg; by its end only 2, remained. During this war and other conflicts, the city belonged at various times to the Austrians , the French , the Swedish , the Spanish , and various members of the German Confederacy.

Between and , when the city was not under French occupation it was the administrative headquarters of Further Austria , the Habsburg territories in the southwest of Germany.

In , the city, together with the Breisgau and Ortenau areas, became part of Baden. In , when the Archdiocese of Freiburg was founded, Freiburg became the seat of a Catholic archbishop.

They were deported to Camp Gurs in the south of France, where many died. On 18 July , the remaining Baden and Freiburg Jews were transferred to Auschwitz in Nazi-occupied Poland, where almost all were murdered.

The memorial is a children's paddling pool and contains a bronze plaque commemorating the original building and the Jewish community which perished.

The pavements of Freiburg carry memorials to individual victims, in the form of brass plates outside their former residences. Freiburg was heavily bombed during World War II.

In May , aircraft of the Luftwaffe mistakenly dropped approximately 60 bombs on Freiburg near the railway station, killing 57 people.

After the war, the city was rebuilt on its medieval plan. In December Freiburg became the seat of government for the German state Badenia , which was merged into Baden-Württemberg in The French Army maintained a presence in Freiburg until , when the last French Army division left the city, and left Germany.

On the site of the former French Army base, a new neighborhood for 5, people, Vauban , was begun in the late s as a "sustainable model district".

Because of its scenic beauty, relatively warm and sunny climate, and easy access to the Black Forest, Freiburg is a hub for regional tourism.

The longest cable car run in Germany, which is 3. The city has an unusual system of gutters called Freiburg Bächle that run throughout its centre.

These Bächle , once used to provide water to fight fires and feed livestock, are constantly flowing with water diverted from the Dreisam.

They were never intended to be used for sewage, and even in the Middle Ages such use could lead to harsh penalties.

During the summer, the running water provides natural cooling of the air, and offers a pleasant gurgling sound. It is said that if one accidentally falls or steps into a Bächle , they will marry a Freiburger, or 'Bobbele'.

The Augustinerplatz is one of the central squares in the old city. Formerly the location of an Augustinian monastery that became the Augustiner Museum in , it is now a popular social space for Freiburg's younger residents.

It has a number of restaurants and bars, including the local brewery 'Feierling', which has a Biergarten. On warm summer nights, hundreds of students gather here.

At the centre of the old city is the Münsterplatz or Cathedral Square, Freiburg's largest square. A farmers market is held here every day except Sundays.

This is the site of Freiburg's Münster , a gothic minster cathedral constructed of red sandstone, built between and and noted for its towering spire.

Built between and , it was once the center of the financial life of the region. The Platz der alten Synagoge "Old Synagogue Square" is one of the more important squares on the outskirts of the historic old city.

The square was the location of a synagogue until it was destroyed on Kristallnacht in The Siegesdenkmal , or victory monument, is a monument to the German victory in the Franco-Prussian War in It is situated at the northern edge of the historic city center of Freiburg, and was built by Karl Friedrich Moest.

In everyday language of people living in Freiburg, it serves as an orientation marker or as a meeting place.

To the east of the city centre, the Schlossberg hill provides extensive views over the city and surrounding region. The castle Schloss from which the hill takes its name was demolished in the s, and only ruins remain.

Schlossberg retained its importance to the city, however, and years ago the city leaders opened up walks and views to make the mountain available to the public.

Today, the Schlossbergbahn funicular railway connects the city centre to the hill. Other museums in the city include the Archaeology Colombischlössle Museum.

Badische Zeitung is the main local daily paper, covering the Black Forest region. In , Freiburg was voted as the Academy of Urbanism's European City of the Year in recognition of the exemplary sustainable urbanism it has implemented over the past several decades.

Freiburg is bordered by the Black Forest mountains Rosskopf and Bromberg to the east, Schönberg and Tuniberg to the south, with the Kaiserstuhl hill region to the west.

Köppen climate classification classifies its climate as oceanic Cfb. Marine features are limited however, as a result of its vast distance from oceans and seas.

As a result, summers have a significant subtropical influence as the inland air heats up. July and August are even under normal circumstances akin to a heatwave for most of Germany.

Winters are moderate but usually with frequent frosts. Freiburg is known as an "eco-city". The newly built neighbourhoods of Vauban and Rieselfeld were developed and built according to the idea of sustainability.

The citizens of Freiburg are known in Germany for their love of cycling and recycling. In June , the Freiburg city council adopted a resolution that it would permit construction only of " low-energy buildings " on municipal land, and all new buildings must comply with certain "low energy" specifications.

Low-energy housing uses solar power passively as well as actively. Freiburg is a center of academia and research with numerous intellectual figures and Nobel Laureates having lived, worked, and taught there.

The city houses one of the oldest and most renowned of German universities, the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg , as well as its medical center.

Home to some of the greatest minds of the West , including such eminent figures as Johann Eck , Max Weber , Edmund Husserl , Martin Heidegger , and Friedrich Hayek , it is one of Europe's top research and teaching institutions.

Freiburg belonged to Austria until and because of this stayed Catholic, even though surrounding villages like Haslach, Opfingen, Tiengen, and the surrounding land ruled by the Margrave of Baden turned Protestant as a result of the Reformation.

The city was part of the Diocese of Konstanz until Due to a dispute between the government of Baden and the Holy See , the archbishop officially took office in The borders of the archdiocese correspond with the borders of the former province of Baden and the former Margraviate of Hohenzollern.

The cathedral, in which the Bishop resides, is Freiburg Minster. Also part of the ecclesiastical province of Freiburg are the suffragan dioceses of Mainz and Rottenburg-Stuttgart.

Until the dioceses of Limburg and Fulda also belonged to this ecclesiastical province. The Archbishop of Freiburg holds the title of metropolitan and the German headquarters of the Caritas International is in Freiburg.

Saint George the flag of Freiburg has the cross of George , Lambert of Maastricht and the catacomb saint, Alexander , are the patron saints of Freiburg.

Many works of art depicting these saints are in the Freiburg Minster, on the Minster square, just as in the museums and archives of the city, including some by Hans Baldung Grien , Hans Holbein the Younger and Gregorius Sickinger.

At the beginning of the summer schedule in by Alter Messplatz, also called Bleicheweg, was added to the loop at Stadthalle - the first terminal loop in Freiburg.

The terminating station at that point was Waldsee , named after the waters in the recreation area of Möslepark. The name of the area of Waldsee emerged much later.

In the following year, the two-track expansion of lines B and C, with the exception of the short single-track section between Bleicheweg and Waldsee, was completed.

The route was designed to be double-tracked right from the start for five-minute cycles. The new Line 5 operated on a ten-minute cycle and used the "Blue Bridge" to cross the main railway line.

Further destinations included the districts of Haslach, Herdern and Zähringen as well as a short extension in Wiehre:. Zähringen had only belonged to Freiburg from , the tram connection was part of the Merger treaty.

In addition, four other stretches of track were already being planned, but could not be implemented because of the First World War.

Furthermore, an overland stretch from Günterstal via Horben and Schauinsland to Todtnau was being planned. The planners had hoped for a quick connection to the tourist friendly Southern Black Forest.

During the First World War, a large part of the workforce was conscripted for military service. Of the staff, which originally consisted of employees, only eight of them were retained.

As a result, women were employed for the first time by the Armed Forces from After the war had broken out, the tram network was needed to transport the wounded to numerous lazaretto s across the city.

The trams intended for transporting injured people were waiting for the lazaretto trains at the loading stations.

The carriages and sidecarriages were able to transport twelve heavy wounds. A further connection between the trams and the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railway arose in in the civilian part of the Güterbahnhof.

The company therefore procured ten freight trucks and rebuilt the three open summer carts The connection still existed until the start of the s, when the GT8K motor coaches were delivered to Freiburg via a partially four-lane line.

In addition, the company pushed the two-track expansion of existing routes. Thus, the second track between Wonnhalde and Wiesenweg went into operation on the route towards Günterstal at the end of During the war, a severe accident occurred immediately after an air attack on the level crossroads at Hellentalbahn.

On 12 October around 9: The tram numbered 32 and the booth were smashed, the driver was severely injured.

The conductor and the only passenger escaped with only minor injuries. In the same year, the colour coding of lines was also introduced in order to facilitate the orientation to the passengers.

Because of the Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic , daily passenger numbers decreased from 40, in to under 3, in At the same time, the price for a one-way journey increased from 15 pfennigs to billion Reichsmark.

Thus, the tram became increasingly unattractively and an adjustment of the whole enterprise was imminent. Line 6 was discontinued on 16 October and the cycles of the other lines waned.

The situation only improved when the Rentenmark was introduced in November In , a further extension went into operation in the suburb of Littenweiler, which had been incorporated in It was to be opened in the same year as the Merger treaty and was one of the reasons for the community giving up its independence.

The course of this would have led to the centre of Littenweiler, however, directly after the loop at Stadthalle, a further crossroads with Höllentalbahn became necessary.

After the line was extended to Littenweiler, the garden city of Waldsee, which had only been established after the First World War, also profited.

It closed the settlement gap between the Wiehre and Littenweiler and therefore from the beginning had a connection with Freiburg city centre.

In the same year, the first motor bus from Freiburg was set up from Hohenzollernplatz to Betzenhausen. In , the operating company built the last part of the new stretch of track between Rennweg and Komturplatz, where a second depot was opened at the same time.

In return, the operation of the short branch line between today's stop at Rennweg and Güterbahnhof, which was for the first time on a passenger route was abandoned.

After the Schauinslandbahn was opened on 17 July , the tram's directorate finally applied for a two-track extension between Wiesenweg and Günterstäler Tor on 23 January , in order to improve the feeder service to the Talstation.

The company also planned a four-kilometre long new stretch of track to connect the mountain railway network to the tram network.

In doing so, the side carriages had to be suspended in Günterstal and motor cars had to be operated on their own up to the Talstation. The high costs for the maintenance garage in Günterstal and five additional rail cars led to the decision of using this connection as an alternative to the bus routes.

Line 6 served from then on between Schwabentorbrück and the Wiehre train station. From , members of the SA and the SS as well as members of the Hitler Youth received a tariff reduction by one unit price of ten Reichspfennigs on any route.

Jews were forbidden from using public trams. On 8 November , the facilitating of operations in a southern direction led to a relief for the tram network.

As a result, the level crossing was no longer in use. The neutralisation of the railway also affected the tram network. At the time, there was no direct connection between Höllentalbahn and Line 6.

From to , the annual number of passengers doubled to more than ten million passengers as a motorised private transport almost came to a standstill as a result of the crude oil crisis.

However, no new vehicles could be procured. In , the city council decided to introduce the trolley bus as a third mode of urbanised transport after diesel had become scarce to operate buses.

Georgen and, optionally, the second tram network had to be changed over to the entire tram network. Construction began with the setting of the first overhead mast on 1 August As a result of the Second World War, there were delays to the overhead line material and ordered vehicles.

After the war, construction was not continued. During the air attack on Freiburg on 27 November , several vehicles as well as half of the overhead network were destroyed.

Amongst others, rail car 1 was destroyed at the railway depot, car 7 by detonations in the Nord depot and two sets of carriages from vehicle 53 and the side carriage of in front of the City Theatre.

Carriage 44 and side carriage were hit at Bismarckallee. A further 26 vehicles were badly damaged by the bombs. From 15 April onwards, all trams were stopped as the electrical crossing had been destroyed during the war.

From as early as 26 May , the operating company resumed the Holzmarkt-Günterstal and Oberlinden-Littenweiler routes after repairing the tracks and overpass on these slightly damaged sections of the route.

After a temporary bridge had been erected for the Rheintalbahn at Komturplaty, the entire Zähringen-Günterstal route was up and running again for lines 1 and 2 from 4 October Line 5 was interrupted by bombing on the Blue Bridge until From 1 September , a shuttle service had been established.

Reconstruction plans included numerous varieties of trams. Ultimately, it was decided to maintain the original routes in order to preserve the accessibility and importance to the city centre.

A changeover to trolley bus operation was always critically seen by planners after it failed to start during the Second World War. The trolley bus operation in a densely built city centre can never reach the performance of a railroad.

Until , additional services were provided after evening shows at Theater Freiburg , the so-called "Theaterwagen".

The lack of managers and desire to save jobs led to the commissioning of the so-called "Sputnik trams", which were named after the first artificial earth satellite in They had the same capacity as a two-axle carriage and side carriage but could be handled by one conductor using a one-way embarking and disembarking system.

They were also the first Freiburg uni-directional vehicles but could only be used on Line 4. A provisional triangular junction had been set up at the terminus station at Littenweiler.

They had already been using the turning loop instigated in at the other end of the commuter station. Another novelty of the early s were the three-car coaches, consisting of a motor coach and two side carriages.

At the end of , the operating company closed Line 5 for "economic and traffic reasons" and replaced it with the then bus line H. The reason for the decommissioning was, among other things, the poor introduction into the traffic area.

A conversion to a more efficient route with its own railway body was therefore not possible. In addition, modern traction units could not be used on the curvy track.

Thus, as in the early days, there were only four lines. In order to spare the cumbersome marshalling operation at the triangular junction of line 4, the VAG installed a turning loop at Littenweiler.

The old loop at Komturplatz did increasingly prove to be a hindrance to traffic because of the cramped situation. By shortening the track in Littenweiler, the network had shrunk by almost 30 percent within a few years, from In , the city tram produced their first unmanned traction coaches with a red "S" on a white background.

However, due to safety reasons, the side cars and most of the older units had to continue to operate on the basis of their manually operated doors.

Nevertheless, individual units which had been procured before were also adapted for one-man operation. On 1 and 2 February , the so-called Freiburg price struggles provided nationwide attention.

At that time, some 2, people protested against price increases, occupied Bertoldsbrunnen and thereby stopped all trams. Their resistance however was unsuccessful.

Whilst many other cities discussed the decommissioning of trams, Freiburg tended to maintain and modernise towards the end of the s.

In , due to the above-average urban planning to the west, a first general traffic plan was adopted. New buildings formed a decisive approach to promote the maintenance and expansion of inner-city tram transport.

In , a first small series of modern eight-axle articulated trams manufactured by Dueweg came into use with a view to further expansion.

They could also be operated single handed and transport exactly as many passengers as the mutli-staffed three-car or four axle units with two-axle side cars.

The articulated trams were specially designed for Freiburg's narrow streets with a four-axle centre wagon and a saddle-mounted end car with a bogie.

In the same year, however, a rationalisation commission was convened, which was to examine a complete changeover to bus operation.

This is one thing, however, one can completely ignore nowadays: In the future, they will be increasingly degraded in our cities.

The municipal council finally confirmed the general public transport plan of with a large majority in Especially for the western districts, they still sensed a connection with trams was more sensible.

In contrast to the recent trend, motorised traffic from the Old City was forbidden and only trams were allowed. Whilst the inner city ring was being constructed, a single-track parallel section across from the Greifneggring was put into operation between the Schwabentor and Schwabentorbrücke.

At the same time, the existing stretch across the Schwabentorring had bene restored. The reason for this measure was the comparatively smaller width of the Schwabentorring, which did not have enough space for a separate track unit and two lanes for traffic.

The additional possibility of the so-called Schwabentor loop was also considered through this neutralisation. Due to the connection between the older and newer routes, trams heading towards the city centre from Littenweiler could be reversed before they reached Schwabentor.

On 17 March , the first groundbreaking ceremony for the almost urban railway standards with an independent railroad track was extended to Landwasser by Mayor Eugen Keidel and Secretary of State Rolf Böhme.

At the start of the s, the first existing stretches of track were given their own body, such as the section between Komturplatz and Zähringen.

On 9 December , a new stretch of line was opened heading towards Padauallee is seen as the start of the city railway era.

Since then, the new stop of Hauptbahnhof main train station has enabled direct access to the railway lines. In the same year, the VAG increased the voltage from volts to the conventional volts of direct current.

When Line 5 was introduced, a larger line network took place as did the individual colour coding of the routes.

These were now visible in the form of roll signs on each tram. Line 1 replaced Line 4 as the main line, with the newly introduced circle routed Line 3, there was also a second line on which trams could be used.

At about the same time, a nationwide debate began concerning the introduction of a cost-effective and transferable "environmental protection monthly ticket", based on the system used in Basel , where it had been operational since 1 March and quickly adopted in other Swiss cities such as Bern and Zurich.

Associated price reductions were countered by passenger growth, which nevertheless led to improvements in the company's business.

Many German transport companies, including VAG, did not fit into the concept of its high publicity. They were supported by the former Association of German Transport Companies, the municipal top associations and large sections of the scientific community who frequently and repeatedly warned against the introduction of these tickets.

On 24 July , the municipal council decided to introduce the first "environmental protection monthly ticket" despite the VAG rejecting the proposal.

This system started in October This move of introducing a cost-effective and transferable monthly ticket led to a rise in passenger numbers by 12 percent in and by 23 percent the following year, this meant by five million to Despite the considerable price reduction, the VAG made an increase of , Deutsche Mark in alone.

In addition, the Transport Community of Freiburg was founded in , together with the rural districts of Emmendingen and Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald , leading to Freiburg not complying with the norm of having multiple tariff zones but instead had only one.

The passenger increase by almost a quarter within a few months was able to be managed relatively well by the readily-available tram units. However, because the number of passengers using the network drastically increased in , which was not anticipated by the VAG, ten used GT4-trams from Stuttgart's tram network had to be taken on by the VAG.

The reason for this was because of the conversion to the Stadtbahn in Stuttgart replacing trams. They were, therefore, the first and only used trams in the history of VAG to be purchased.

A novel feature of Freiburg was the use of multiple units and the division of leading and guided units. The trams, referred colloquially as "Spätzlehobel" [35] which were always used in Freiburg in their yellow and white Stuttgart livery, were only replaced by new trams in The Regio-Umweltkarte, introduced on 1 September , provided for itself, and previously, its own intermediate stages, partly for jumping passenger growth.

Therefore, the VAG used the outdated Sputnik trams from until The Regio-Umweltkarte in addition to its own monthly ticket, had a connection card available for travel across neighbouring regions costing 15 Deutsche Mark.

In , the environmental points ticket also led to a reduction in ticket prices by about 25 percent which was also the case in Basel. This led to a spark in further traffic and environmental issues across Germany [32].

In , the VAG completed the project of providing a tram line to Landwasser by extending the former terminus at Paduaallee by 1.

This meant Lines 3 and 4 now passed over Stühlinger bridge. When the first motor trams of the GT8N series were delivered, the VAG was able to offer its passengers a low-floor entry starting from This was to be the third tramway network to do so after Würzburg and Bremen.

The rapid development of low-floor technology during these years reflected in Freiburg's way of obtaining trams.

If the first trams only had a low-floor section of seven percent and therefore a depth rise of five doors, the second low-floor generation of had a low-floor section of 48 percent and barrier-free access to three out of the four doors.

From , only low-floor units were purchased. Parallel to investments in vehicle parking, VAG equipped almost all older stops across the network to have 24 centimetre high platforms.

The route runs parallel to Berliner Alllee and crosses the B31 a and the Dreisam. This meant that the Western Railway Depot received a railway link for the first time.

The northern depot was demolished in , while the southern depot now houses a museum. The link to the newly developed district of Rieselfeld was established in The terminal loop at Rieselfeld turns around a residential building, the so-called "Tram-Turm".

After 40 years, the Haslach district had a tram network when Line 7 was first opened between Am Lindenwäldle and Pressehaus in October There was controversy when the link connecting Pressehaus and the Innenstadt were taking place.

The costs for this project amount to about 30 million Euros. Later, it was decided to implement the first-named routed as part of the "Stadtbahn Rotteckring".

The district of Vauban, built on the site of a former barracks in , also had access to the tram network in after three years of construction.

The tram had on the most part its own green body. On 15 March , the 1. Part of this project was also the construction of the stop at Reutebachgasse about 50 metres to the north.

Part of the terminal loop is located at the Gundelfinger boundary, so trams leave the region of Freiburg here. The cost of this construction project amassed From the beginning of June to the end of October , tracks at the junction of Bertoldsbrunnen were renovated after the points had broken out.

One operational feature during this period was the GT8N-operated Line 1 heading east, because a provisional depot had to be erected at Möschlschleife due to the lack of a track connection to the depot.

By counting the number of passengers on the night services in November , it was reported that a high four-digit number of passengers use the service a night.

The last expansion was the partial commissioning of the "Stadtbahnmesse", which started on 14 June [48] to Technische Fakultät on 11 December Since February , the normal spelling of "Messe" has been used.

The five tram lines, all of which are cross-city routes, serve a total of 73 stops. The average distance between stops in was metres.

Trams run between 5am and 0: The line length is This is likely to run until December The entire network is located within tariff zone A, which means that for a tram ride, the tariff is level 1.

The model of success is the so-called "Regio-Karte". It is readily available and is valid throughout the network.

Single tickets cost 2. In addition, a day ticket Regio 24 and various other tickets are also available. Bikes are not permitted in any tram on the network.

There are ticket machines in all carriages and at important stops. Passengers wanting to buy tickets from the driver is no longer possible and has been the case since the start of The following table shows all openings and closures in passenger-oriented trams.

Temporary routes are not included. Lines were originally given letters before they were allocated Arabic numerals in Each line had its own destinations, which differed in colour.

The official introduction of colour-coded lines took place in the Summer of However, these were not displayed at all times on trams, but were only partly used for internal distinction or listed on the transit map.

As a special feature, the VAG introduced a line reform in , when the colours of the lines were changed and coloured roll signs were introduced to display the line number.

This was also only the case in a few other German cities. The night service "Safer Traffic" was originally served by buses from , but have largely been tram-operated since 14 December In , after a good experience with the GT8 Geamatic, which was delivered in , a further series of ten vehicles were commissioned with service numbers on the route to Landwasser.

The high-floor uni-directional trams were delivered with the white and red Freiburg livery and have two front headlights. The second series used for the first time a direct current controller, which was operated via set point transmitter.

It allows a largely jerka-free acceleration and deceleration. Compared to the first series, which had scissor pantographs , the second series had single-arm pantographs.

Tram is now used as an historic tram, tram was scrapped in and trams and were sold to the Ulm tram network in , where they were merged into a two-wheeled tram using number Since , the use of these trams are usually limited to the morning rush hour or as an additional service to SC Freiburg 's home games.

From to , trams and were again put into use due to the renovation of the GT8Zs. For this purpose, tram , which had not been used for years, had to be reactivated and was the first tram to have an LED display, whilst the remaining vehicles were renovated in March Due to the introduction of the second Urbos series at the start of , tram was retired once more.

In , Duewag delivered another series of eleven developed GT8s for a unit price of 2. Unlike its predecessors, the GT8N have a low-floor middle section, which allows a barrier-free entry.

In , all trams had a matrix display installed. The trams were modernised by the Czech company Cegelec, who replaced the obsolete thyristor technology with relatively new insulated-gate bipolar transistors IGBT technology, which was a further development to the thyristor.

The modernisation process was completed in ,. In recent years, the GT8N's usage has been shifted to lines 3 and 5. The eleven trams are generally only used on weekdays.

At the beginning of the s, Freiburg was looking for modern low-floor trams. For this reason, it was a good idea to order a series of 26 GT8Y with a low-floor share of 48 percent in to start the Haid route.

The purchase price was 4 million Deutsche Mark each. At the same time, the last remaining GT4s were decommissioned.

For more than 20 years of operation, there were some instances of rusting, but this has been eradicated since they were modernised in In addition, Cegelec replaced the electronics including two new liquid crystal displays in the centre cabin and replacing the seat cushions.

In early , , , and were being modernised and therefore were not in use. After a test phase in , during which time operation on line 3 was limited, trams that had been modernised were running on lines 2 and 5 from March When the route to Rieselfeld and Haslach had been opened, the need for trams continued to rise.

For this reason, a series of nine trams was ordered from Duewag's successor company Siemens. The first seven-part bi-directional trams were delivered in Because of serious design deficiencies, all Combinos had to be withdrawn from circulation in Some screws had become loose and had to be resolved, causing considerably restricted operation.

The reason behind this, which occurred worldwide, was a false calculation of the body. Erroneous values were calculated on high-floored units.

Tram was artificially aged in order to gain more insights into the strength of the bodies. The refurbishment of the Combinos continued until , but now and are fully operational once more.

Originally, only nine were planned, while car was delivered as a replacement for the scrapped Combino. The seven-part bi-directional trams differed from their predecessors by having a rounder-shaped head.

The entire passenger section was air-conditioned. In the Combino Basics, this was only in the cab. On 4 February , the Spanish company CAF was awarded the contract to produce twelve 43 metre long seven-sectioned bi-directional trams.

The first tram was numbered and arrived on 17 March Delivery of the second series, numbers to was between February and July The following rail cars were procured for trams, which are currently no longer used for regular services.

Until , the company only had access to two-axle or short four-axle maximum rail cars, and from this year onwards, only articulated trams.

On the other hand, large-scale units were never used in Freiburg. All previously cancelled units were high-floored. In the months of May to September, the route between Paduaallee and Stadthalle took place on the first Saturday of the month, and stops at all intermediate stations could be used free of charge.

After decommissioning, given to Halle tramway. Used in Lodz from to , later scrapped or used for spare parts. Originally, the departmental trams were numbered up from From , a grinder tram, sold in to Halberstadt.

The general paintwork for all municipal trams in was yellow with brown side panels made of teak.

From the beginning of June to the end of Octobertracks at the junction of Bertoldsbrunnen were renovated after the points had broken out. Beste Spielothek in Im Dorfe finden the location of an Augustinian monastery that became the Augustiner Museum init is now a popular social space for Freiburg's younger residents. In recent years, the GT8N's usage has been shifted to lines 3 and 5. So funktioniert der Nachtverkehr — badische-zeitung. After the Beste Spielothek in Stierstadt finden, construction was not continued. Stadträte warten auf Erklärungen. Archived at the Wayback Machine. When Line 5 was introduced, a larger line network took thrills casino no deposit bonus code as did the individual colour coding of the routes. This was untilwhen it received its own supply. For free slots uk French hamlet, see Friburge. OffenburgStrasbourg France. Part of this project was also the construction of the stop at Reutebachgasse about 50 metres to the north. Gemander, Dietmar; Hettinger, Thomas Former railcar 66, initially workshop tram Froma grinder tram, sold in to Halberstadt.

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According to an old Freiburg legend, a butcher named Hauri stabbed the Bishop of Strasbourg to death on 29 July It was a Pyrrhic victory , since henceforth the citizens of Freiburg had to pay an annual expiation of marks in silver to the count of Freiburg until In the counts of Freiburg made another failed attempt to occupy the city during a night raid.

Eventually the citizens were fed up with their lords, and in Freiburg purchased its independence from them. The city turned itself over to the protection of the Habsburgs , who allowed the city to retain a large measure of freedom.

Most of the nobles of the city died in the battle of Sempach The patrician family Schnewlin took control of the city until the guildsmen revolted.

The guilds became more powerful than the patricians by The silver mines in Mount Schauinsland provided an important source of capital for Freiburg.

This silver made Freiburg one of the richest cities in Europe, and in Freiburg minted its own coin, the Rappenpfennig. In the cities of Freiburg, Basel , Colmar , and Breisach entered into an monetary alliance known as the Genossenschaft des Rappenpfennigs Rappenpfennig Collective.

This alliance facilitated commerce among the cities and lasted until the end of the sixteenth century. There were 8,, people living in Freiburg between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and 30 churches and monasteries.

At the end of the fourteenth century the veins of silver were dwindling, and by only approximately 6, people still lived within Freiburg's city walls.

A university city, Freiburg evolved from its focus on mining to become a cultural centre for the arts and sciences.

It was also a commercial center. The end of the Middle Ages and the dawn of the Renaissance was a time of both advances and tragedy for Freiburg.

In , the city ratified a set of legal reforms, widely considered the most progressive of the time. The aim was to find a balance between city traditions and old Roman Law.

The reforms were well received, especially the sections dealing with civil process law, punishment, and the city's constitution.

In , Freiburg decided not to take part in the Reformation and became an important centre for Catholicism on the Upper Rhine.

Erasmus moved here after Basel accepted the Reformation. In , a strong and persistent belief in witchcraft led to the city's first witch-hunt. A plaque on the old city wall marks the spot where burnings were carried out.

The seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries were turbulent times for Freiburg. At the beginning of the Thirty Years' War there were 10,, citizens in Freiburg; by its end only 2, remained.

During this war and other conflicts, the city belonged at various times to the Austrians , the French , the Swedish , the Spanish , and various members of the German Confederacy.

Between and , when the city was not under French occupation it was the administrative headquarters of Further Austria , the Habsburg territories in the southwest of Germany.

In , the city, together with the Breisgau and Ortenau areas, became part of Baden. In , when the Archdiocese of Freiburg was founded, Freiburg became the seat of a Catholic archbishop.

They were deported to Camp Gurs in the south of France, where many died. On 18 July , the remaining Baden and Freiburg Jews were transferred to Auschwitz in Nazi-occupied Poland, where almost all were murdered.

The memorial is a children's paddling pool and contains a bronze plaque commemorating the original building and the Jewish community which perished.

The pavements of Freiburg carry memorials to individual victims, in the form of brass plates outside their former residences.

Freiburg was heavily bombed during World War II. In May , aircraft of the Luftwaffe mistakenly dropped approximately 60 bombs on Freiburg near the railway station, killing 57 people.

After the war, the city was rebuilt on its medieval plan. In December Freiburg became the seat of government for the German state Badenia , which was merged into Baden-Württemberg in The French Army maintained a presence in Freiburg until , when the last French Army division left the city, and left Germany.

On the site of the former French Army base, a new neighborhood for 5, people, Vauban , was begun in the late s as a "sustainable model district".

Because of its scenic beauty, relatively warm and sunny climate, and easy access to the Black Forest, Freiburg is a hub for regional tourism.

The longest cable car run in Germany, which is 3. The city has an unusual system of gutters called Freiburg Bächle that run throughout its centre.

These Bächle , once used to provide water to fight fires and feed livestock, are constantly flowing with water diverted from the Dreisam.

They were never intended to be used for sewage, and even in the Middle Ages such use could lead to harsh penalties. During the summer, the running water provides natural cooling of the air, and offers a pleasant gurgling sound.

It is said that if one accidentally falls or steps into a Bächle , they will marry a Freiburger, or 'Bobbele'. The Augustinerplatz is one of the central squares in the old city.

Formerly the location of an Augustinian monastery that became the Augustiner Museum in , it is now a popular social space for Freiburg's younger residents.

It has a number of restaurants and bars, including the local brewery 'Feierling', which has a Biergarten. On warm summer nights, hundreds of students gather here.

At the centre of the old city is the Münsterplatz or Cathedral Square, Freiburg's largest square. A farmers market is held here every day except Sundays.

This is the site of Freiburg's Münster , a gothic minster cathedral constructed of red sandstone, built between and and noted for its towering spire.

Built between and , it was once the center of the financial life of the region. The Platz der alten Synagoge "Old Synagogue Square" is one of the more important squares on the outskirts of the historic old city.

The square was the location of a synagogue until it was destroyed on Kristallnacht in The Siegesdenkmal , or victory monument, is a monument to the German victory in the Franco-Prussian War in It is situated at the northern edge of the historic city center of Freiburg, and was built by Karl Friedrich Moest.

In everyday language of people living in Freiburg, it serves as an orientation marker or as a meeting place. To the east of the city centre, the Schlossberg hill provides extensive views over the city and surrounding region.

The castle Schloss from which the hill takes its name was demolished in the s, and only ruins remain. Schlossberg retained its importance to the city, however, and years ago the city leaders opened up walks and views to make the mountain available to the public.

Today, the Schlossbergbahn funicular railway connects the city centre to the hill. Other museums in the city include the Archaeology Colombischlössle Museum.

Badische Zeitung is the main local daily paper, covering the Black Forest region. In , Freiburg was voted as the Academy of Urbanism's European City of the Year in recognition of the exemplary sustainable urbanism it has implemented over the past several decades.

Freiburg is bordered by the Black Forest mountains Rosskopf and Bromberg to the east, Schönberg and Tuniberg to the south, with the Kaiserstuhl hill region to the west.

Köppen climate classification classifies its climate as oceanic Cfb. Marine features are limited however, as a result of its vast distance from oceans and seas.

As a result, summers have a significant subtropical influence as the inland air heats up. July and August are even under normal circumstances akin to a heatwave for most of Germany.

Winters are moderate but usually with frequent frosts. Freiburg is known as an "eco-city". The newly built neighbourhoods of Vauban and Rieselfeld were developed and built according to the idea of sustainability.

The citizens of Freiburg are known in Germany for their love of cycling and recycling. In June , the Freiburg city council adopted a resolution that it would permit construction only of " low-energy buildings " on municipal land, and all new buildings must comply with certain "low energy" specifications.

Low-energy housing uses solar power passively as well as actively. Freiburg is a center of academia and research with numerous intellectual figures and Nobel Laureates having lived, worked, and taught there.

The city houses one of the oldest and most renowned of German universities, the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg , as well as its medical center.

Home to some of the greatest minds of the West , including such eminent figures as Johann Eck , Max Weber , Edmund Husserl , Martin Heidegger , and Friedrich Hayek , it is one of Europe's top research and teaching institutions.

Freiburg belonged to Austria until and because of this stayed Catholic, even though surrounding villages like Haslach, Opfingen, Tiengen, and the surrounding land ruled by the Margrave of Baden turned Protestant as a result of the Reformation.

The city was part of the Diocese of Konstanz until Due to a dispute between the government of Baden and the Holy See , the archbishop officially took office in The borders of the archdiocese correspond with the borders of the former province of Baden and the former Margraviate of Hohenzollern.

The cathedral, in which the Bishop resides, is Freiburg Minster. Also part of the ecclesiastical province of Freiburg are the suffragan dioceses of Mainz and Rottenburg-Stuttgart.

Until the dioceses of Limburg and Fulda also belonged to this ecclesiastical province. The Archbishop of Freiburg holds the title of metropolitan and the German headquarters of the Caritas International is in Freiburg.

Saint George the flag of Freiburg has the cross of George , Lambert of Maastricht and the catacomb saint, Alexander , are the patron saints of Freiburg.

Many works of art depicting these saints are in the Freiburg Minster, on the Minster square, just as in the museums and archives of the city, including some by Hans Baldung Grien , Hans Holbein the Younger and Gregorius Sickinger.

In , with the attack of Breisgau on the Grand Duchy of Baden by a Catholic ruler, many Protestants moved into the city.

There are multiple other free protestant churches: The Catholic Church of St. Jews are said to have lived in the city before , but it was only after that they supposedly founded an official community in the Webergasse a small street within the city center.

The counts of Freiburg bought the lucrative Schutzjude , which means that all personal information on Jews living in Freiburg was directly sent to Konrad II and his co-reigning son Friedrich.

The two issued a comprising letter promising safety and liberty to all local Jews on 12 October It lost all value shortly after, however, on 1 January Even though the plague had not yet broken out in the city, Jews were accused of having spread it and taken into custody.

All Jewish people with the exception of pregnant women were burned alive on 31 January Of the staff, which originally consisted of employees, only eight of them were retained.

As a result, women were employed for the first time by the Armed Forces from After the war had broken out, the tram network was needed to transport the wounded to numerous lazaretto s across the city.

The trams intended for transporting injured people were waiting for the lazaretto trains at the loading stations. The carriages and sidecarriages were able to transport twelve heavy wounds.

A further connection between the trams and the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railway arose in in the civilian part of the Güterbahnhof.

The company therefore procured ten freight trucks and rebuilt the three open summer carts The connection still existed until the start of the s, when the GT8K motor coaches were delivered to Freiburg via a partially four-lane line.

In addition, the company pushed the two-track expansion of existing routes. Thus, the second track between Wonnhalde and Wiesenweg went into operation on the route towards Günterstal at the end of During the war, a severe accident occurred immediately after an air attack on the level crossroads at Hellentalbahn.

On 12 October around 9: The tram numbered 32 and the booth were smashed, the driver was severely injured. The conductor and the only passenger escaped with only minor injuries.

In the same year, the colour coding of lines was also introduced in order to facilitate the orientation to the passengers. Because of the Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic , daily passenger numbers decreased from 40, in to under 3, in At the same time, the price for a one-way journey increased from 15 pfennigs to billion Reichsmark.

Thus, the tram became increasingly unattractively and an adjustment of the whole enterprise was imminent. Line 6 was discontinued on 16 October and the cycles of the other lines waned.

The situation only improved when the Rentenmark was introduced in November In , a further extension went into operation in the suburb of Littenweiler, which had been incorporated in It was to be opened in the same year as the Merger treaty and was one of the reasons for the community giving up its independence.

The course of this would have led to the centre of Littenweiler, however, directly after the loop at Stadthalle, a further crossroads with Höllentalbahn became necessary.

After the line was extended to Littenweiler, the garden city of Waldsee, which had only been established after the First World War, also profited.

It closed the settlement gap between the Wiehre and Littenweiler and therefore from the beginning had a connection with Freiburg city centre.

In the same year, the first motor bus from Freiburg was set up from Hohenzollernplatz to Betzenhausen.

In , the operating company built the last part of the new stretch of track between Rennweg and Komturplatz, where a second depot was opened at the same time.

In return, the operation of the short branch line between today's stop at Rennweg and Güterbahnhof, which was for the first time on a passenger route was abandoned.

After the Schauinslandbahn was opened on 17 July , the tram's directorate finally applied for a two-track extension between Wiesenweg and Günterstäler Tor on 23 January , in order to improve the feeder service to the Talstation.

The company also planned a four-kilometre long new stretch of track to connect the mountain railway network to the tram network. In doing so, the side carriages had to be suspended in Günterstal and motor cars had to be operated on their own up to the Talstation.

The high costs for the maintenance garage in Günterstal and five additional rail cars led to the decision of using this connection as an alternative to the bus routes.

Line 6 served from then on between Schwabentorbrück and the Wiehre train station. From , members of the SA and the SS as well as members of the Hitler Youth received a tariff reduction by one unit price of ten Reichspfennigs on any route.

Jews were forbidden from using public trams. On 8 November , the facilitating of operations in a southern direction led to a relief for the tram network.

As a result, the level crossing was no longer in use. The neutralisation of the railway also affected the tram network.

At the time, there was no direct connection between Höllentalbahn and Line 6. From to , the annual number of passengers doubled to more than ten million passengers as a motorised private transport almost came to a standstill as a result of the crude oil crisis.

However, no new vehicles could be procured. In , the city council decided to introduce the trolley bus as a third mode of urbanised transport after diesel had become scarce to operate buses.

Georgen and, optionally, the second tram network had to be changed over to the entire tram network. Construction began with the setting of the first overhead mast on 1 August As a result of the Second World War, there were delays to the overhead line material and ordered vehicles.

After the war, construction was not continued. During the air attack on Freiburg on 27 November , several vehicles as well as half of the overhead network were destroyed.

Amongst others, rail car 1 was destroyed at the railway depot, car 7 by detonations in the Nord depot and two sets of carriages from vehicle 53 and the side carriage of in front of the City Theatre.

Carriage 44 and side carriage were hit at Bismarckallee. A further 26 vehicles were badly damaged by the bombs. From 15 April onwards, all trams were stopped as the electrical crossing had been destroyed during the war.

From as early as 26 May , the operating company resumed the Holzmarkt-Günterstal and Oberlinden-Littenweiler routes after repairing the tracks and overpass on these slightly damaged sections of the route.

After a temporary bridge had been erected for the Rheintalbahn at Komturplaty, the entire Zähringen-Günterstal route was up and running again for lines 1 and 2 from 4 October Line 5 was interrupted by bombing on the Blue Bridge until From 1 September , a shuttle service had been established.

Reconstruction plans included numerous varieties of trams. Ultimately, it was decided to maintain the original routes in order to preserve the accessibility and importance to the city centre.

A changeover to trolley bus operation was always critically seen by planners after it failed to start during the Second World War. The trolley bus operation in a densely built city centre can never reach the performance of a railroad.

Until , additional services were provided after evening shows at Theater Freiburg , the so-called "Theaterwagen". The lack of managers and desire to save jobs led to the commissioning of the so-called "Sputnik trams", which were named after the first artificial earth satellite in They had the same capacity as a two-axle carriage and side carriage but could be handled by one conductor using a one-way embarking and disembarking system.

They were also the first Freiburg uni-directional vehicles but could only be used on Line 4. A provisional triangular junction had been set up at the terminus station at Littenweiler.

They had already been using the turning loop instigated in at the other end of the commuter station. Another novelty of the early s were the three-car coaches, consisting of a motor coach and two side carriages.

At the end of , the operating company closed Line 5 for "economic and traffic reasons" and replaced it with the then bus line H. The reason for the decommissioning was, among other things, the poor introduction into the traffic area.

A conversion to a more efficient route with its own railway body was therefore not possible. In addition, modern traction units could not be used on the curvy track.

Thus, as in the early days, there were only four lines. In order to spare the cumbersome marshalling operation at the triangular junction of line 4, the VAG installed a turning loop at Littenweiler.

The old loop at Komturplatz did increasingly prove to be a hindrance to traffic because of the cramped situation. By shortening the track in Littenweiler, the network had shrunk by almost 30 percent within a few years, from In , the city tram produced their first unmanned traction coaches with a red "S" on a white background.

However, due to safety reasons, the side cars and most of the older units had to continue to operate on the basis of their manually operated doors.

Nevertheless, individual units which had been procured before were also adapted for one-man operation. On 1 and 2 February , the so-called Freiburg price struggles provided nationwide attention.

At that time, some 2, people protested against price increases, occupied Bertoldsbrunnen and thereby stopped all trams.

Their resistance however was unsuccessful. Whilst many other cities discussed the decommissioning of trams, Freiburg tended to maintain and modernise towards the end of the s.

In , due to the above-average urban planning to the west, a first general traffic plan was adopted. New buildings formed a decisive approach to promote the maintenance and expansion of inner-city tram transport.

In , a first small series of modern eight-axle articulated trams manufactured by Dueweg came into use with a view to further expansion.

They could also be operated single handed and transport exactly as many passengers as the mutli-staffed three-car or four axle units with two-axle side cars.

The articulated trams were specially designed for Freiburg's narrow streets with a four-axle centre wagon and a saddle-mounted end car with a bogie.

In the same year, however, a rationalisation commission was convened, which was to examine a complete changeover to bus operation.

This is one thing, however, one can completely ignore nowadays: In the future, they will be increasingly degraded in our cities.

The municipal council finally confirmed the general public transport plan of with a large majority in Especially for the western districts, they still sensed a connection with trams was more sensible.

In contrast to the recent trend, motorised traffic from the Old City was forbidden and only trams were allowed.

Whilst the inner city ring was being constructed, a single-track parallel section across from the Greifneggring was put into operation between the Schwabentor and Schwabentorbrücke.

At the same time, the existing stretch across the Schwabentorring had bene restored. The reason for this measure was the comparatively smaller width of the Schwabentorring, which did not have enough space for a separate track unit and two lanes for traffic.

The additional possibility of the so-called Schwabentor loop was also considered through this neutralisation. Due to the connection between the older and newer routes, trams heading towards the city centre from Littenweiler could be reversed before they reached Schwabentor.

On 17 March , the first groundbreaking ceremony for the almost urban railway standards with an independent railroad track was extended to Landwasser by Mayor Eugen Keidel and Secretary of State Rolf Böhme.

At the start of the s, the first existing stretches of track were given their own body, such as the section between Komturplatz and Zähringen. On 9 December , a new stretch of line was opened heading towards Padauallee is seen as the start of the city railway era.

Since then, the new stop of Hauptbahnhof main train station has enabled direct access to the railway lines. In the same year, the VAG increased the voltage from volts to the conventional volts of direct current.

When Line 5 was introduced, a larger line network took place as did the individual colour coding of the routes. These were now visible in the form of roll signs on each tram.

Line 1 replaced Line 4 as the main line, with the newly introduced circle routed Line 3, there was also a second line on which trams could be used.

At about the same time, a nationwide debate began concerning the introduction of a cost-effective and transferable "environmental protection monthly ticket", based on the system used in Basel , where it had been operational since 1 March and quickly adopted in other Swiss cities such as Bern and Zurich.

Associated price reductions were countered by passenger growth, which nevertheless led to improvements in the company's business.

Many German transport companies, including VAG, did not fit into the concept of its high publicity. They were supported by the former Association of German Transport Companies, the municipal top associations and large sections of the scientific community who frequently and repeatedly warned against the introduction of these tickets.

On 24 July , the municipal council decided to introduce the first "environmental protection monthly ticket" despite the VAG rejecting the proposal.

This system started in October This move of introducing a cost-effective and transferable monthly ticket led to a rise in passenger numbers by 12 percent in and by 23 percent the following year, this meant by five million to Despite the considerable price reduction, the VAG made an increase of , Deutsche Mark in alone.

In addition, the Transport Community of Freiburg was founded in , together with the rural districts of Emmendingen and Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald , leading to Freiburg not complying with the norm of having multiple tariff zones but instead had only one.

The passenger increase by almost a quarter within a few months was able to be managed relatively well by the readily-available tram units.

However, because the number of passengers using the network drastically increased in , which was not anticipated by the VAG, ten used GT4-trams from Stuttgart's tram network had to be taken on by the VAG.

The reason for this was because of the conversion to the Stadtbahn in Stuttgart replacing trams. They were, therefore, the first and only used trams in the history of VAG to be purchased.

A novel feature of Freiburg was the use of multiple units and the division of leading and guided units. The trams, referred colloquially as "Spätzlehobel" [35] which were always used in Freiburg in their yellow and white Stuttgart livery, were only replaced by new trams in The Regio-Umweltkarte, introduced on 1 September , provided for itself, and previously, its own intermediate stages, partly for jumping passenger growth.

Therefore, the VAG used the outdated Sputnik trams from until The Regio-Umweltkarte in addition to its own monthly ticket, had a connection card available for travel across neighbouring regions costing 15 Deutsche Mark.

In , the environmental points ticket also led to a reduction in ticket prices by about 25 percent which was also the case in Basel.

This led to a spark in further traffic and environmental issues across Germany [32]. In , the VAG completed the project of providing a tram line to Landwasser by extending the former terminus at Paduaallee by 1.

This meant Lines 3 and 4 now passed over Stühlinger bridge. When the first motor trams of the GT8N series were delivered, the VAG was able to offer its passengers a low-floor entry starting from This was to be the third tramway network to do so after Würzburg and Bremen.

The rapid development of low-floor technology during these years reflected in Freiburg's way of obtaining trams. If the first trams only had a low-floor section of seven percent and therefore a depth rise of five doors, the second low-floor generation of had a low-floor section of 48 percent and barrier-free access to three out of the four doors.

From , only low-floor units were purchased. Parallel to investments in vehicle parking, VAG equipped almost all older stops across the network to have 24 centimetre high platforms.

The route runs parallel to Berliner Alllee and crosses the B31 a and the Dreisam. This meant that the Western Railway Depot received a railway link for the first time.

The northern depot was demolished in , while the southern depot now houses a museum. The link to the newly developed district of Rieselfeld was established in The terminal loop at Rieselfeld turns around a residential building, the so-called "Tram-Turm".

After 40 years, the Haslach district had a tram network when Line 7 was first opened between Am Lindenwäldle and Pressehaus in October There was controversy when the link connecting Pressehaus and the Innenstadt were taking place.

The costs for this project amount to about 30 million Euros. Later, it was decided to implement the first-named routed as part of the "Stadtbahn Rotteckring".

The district of Vauban, built on the site of a former barracks in , also had access to the tram network in after three years of construction.

The tram had on the most part its own green body. On 15 March , the 1. Part of this project was also the construction of the stop at Reutebachgasse about 50 metres to the north.

Part of the terminal loop is located at the Gundelfinger boundary, so trams leave the region of Freiburg here. The cost of this construction project amassed From the beginning of June to the end of October , tracks at the junction of Bertoldsbrunnen were renovated after the points had broken out.

One operational feature during this period was the GT8N-operated Line 1 heading east, because a provisional depot had to be erected at Möschlschleife due to the lack of a track connection to the depot.

By counting the number of passengers on the night services in November , it was reported that a high four-digit number of passengers use the service a night.

The last expansion was the partial commissioning of the "Stadtbahnmesse", which started on 14 June [48] to Technische Fakultät on 11 December Since February , the normal spelling of "Messe" has been used.

The five tram lines, all of which are cross-city routes, serve a total of 73 stops. The average distance between stops in was metres.

Trams run between 5am and 0: The line length is This is likely to run until December The entire network is located within tariff zone A, which means that for a tram ride, the tariff is level 1.

The model of success is the so-called "Regio-Karte". It is readily available and is valid throughout the network. Single tickets cost 2.

In addition, a day ticket Regio 24 and various other tickets are also available. Bikes are not permitted in any tram on the network.

There are ticket machines in all carriages and at important stops. Passengers wanting to buy tickets from the driver is no longer possible and has been the case since the start of The following table shows all openings and closures in passenger-oriented trams.

Temporary routes are not included. Lines were originally given letters before they were allocated Arabic numerals in Each line had its own destinations, which differed in colour.

The official introduction of colour-coded lines took place in the Summer of However, these were not displayed at all times on trams, but were only partly used for internal distinction or listed on the transit map.

As a special feature, the VAG introduced a line reform in , when the colours of the lines were changed and coloured roll signs were introduced to display the line number.

This was also only the case in a few other German cities. The night service "Safer Traffic" was originally served by buses from , but have largely been tram-operated since 14 December In , after a good experience with the GT8 Geamatic, which was delivered in , a further series of ten vehicles were commissioned with service numbers on the route to Landwasser.

The high-floor uni-directional trams were delivered with the white and red Freiburg livery and have two front headlights.

The second series used for the first time a direct current controller, which was operated via set point transmitter.

It allows a largely jerka-free acceleration and deceleration. Compared to the first series, which had scissor pantographs , the second series had single-arm pantographs.

Tram is now used as an historic tram, tram was scrapped in and trams and were sold to the Ulm tram network in , where they were merged into a two-wheeled tram using number Since , the use of these trams are usually limited to the morning rush hour or as an additional service to SC Freiburg 's home games.

From to , trams and were again put into use due to the renovation of the GT8Zs. For this purpose, tram , which had not been used for years, had to be reactivated and was the first tram to have an LED display, whilst the remaining vehicles were renovated in March Due to the introduction of the second Urbos series at the start of , tram was retired once more.

In , Duewag delivered another series of eleven developed GT8s for a unit price of 2. Unlike its predecessors, the GT8N have a low-floor middle section, which allows a barrier-free entry.

In , all trams had a matrix display installed. The trams were modernised by the Czech company Cegelec, who replaced the obsolete thyristor technology with relatively new insulated-gate bipolar transistors IGBT technology, which was a further development to the thyristor.

The modernisation process was completed in ,. In recent years, the GT8N's usage has been shifted to lines 3 and 5. The eleven trams are generally only used on weekdays.

At the beginning of the s, Freiburg was looking for modern low-floor trams. For this reason, it was a good idea to order a series of 26 GT8Y with a low-floor share of 48 percent in to start the Haid route.

The purchase price was 4 million Deutsche Mark each. At the same time, the last remaining GT4s were decommissioned. For more than 20 years of operation, there were some instances of rusting, but this has been eradicated since they were modernised in In addition, Cegelec replaced the electronics including two new liquid crystal displays in the centre cabin and replacing the seat cushions.

In early , , , and were being modernised and therefore were not in use. After a test phase in , during which time operation on line 3 was limited, trams that had been modernised were running on lines 2 and 5 from March When the route to Rieselfeld and Haslach had been opened, the need for trams continued to rise.

For this reason, a series of nine trams was ordered from Duewag's successor company Siemens. The first seven-part bi-directional trams were delivered in Because of serious design deficiencies, all Combinos had to be withdrawn from circulation in Some screws had become loose and had to be resolved, causing considerably restricted operation.

The reason behind this, which occurred worldwide, was a false calculation of the body. Erroneous values were calculated on high-floored units.

Tram was artificially aged in order to gain more insights into the strength of the bodies. The refurbishment of the Combinos continued until , but now and are fully operational once more.

Originally, only nine were planned, while car was delivered as a replacement for the scrapped Combino. The seven-part bi-directional trams differed from their predecessors by having a rounder-shaped head.

The entire passenger section was air-conditioned. In the Combino Basics, this was only in the cab. On 4 February , the Spanish company CAF was awarded the contract to produce twelve 43 metre long seven-sectioned bi-directional trams.

The first tram was numbered and arrived on 17 March Delivery of the second series, numbers to was between February and July The following rail cars were procured for trams, which are currently no longer used for regular services.

Until , the company only had access to two-axle or short four-axle maximum rail cars, and from this year onwards, only articulated trams. On the other hand, large-scale units were never used in Freiburg.

All previously cancelled units were high-floored. In the months of May to September, the route between Paduaallee and Stadthalle took place on the first Saturday of the month, and stops at all intermediate stations could be used free of charge.

After decommissioning, given to Halle tramway. Used in Lodz from to , later scrapped or used for spare parts. Originally, the departmental trams were numbered up from From , a grinder tram, sold in to Halberstadt.

The general paintwork for all municipal trams in was yellow with brown side panels made of teak. Advertisement was strictly rejected since otherwise "the elegance of the tram" would suffer considerably.

We do not deny the effectiveness of advertising on our trams, but we doubt that it will contribute to the increase in tourism, when posters are placed on the wage, with the recommendation of water, alcohol-free drinks, cigarettes etc.

There was only a lull in the ban on advertising during the economic crisis of July Since them, internal commercial advertising was tentatively approved.

On the basis of strong criticism from the citizens and the directorate of the trams, which advertised on the exterior as "speckled and striped monsters", the cit took over the jurisdiction from and decided in a voted in a concept of tram advertisement.

This earmarked that urban enterprises should be given the opportunity to advertise on the inside of the trams and that the exterior should be left as a compromise.

As a result, another form of vehicle advertising was established in The first customer of such a reclaiming tram was the Sarrasani Circus.

The National Socialists used these advertisements as a means of propaganda and labelled rail car 13 with the slogan "We're going to England!

Lord Mayor Wolfgang Hoffman introduced the advertising on side-mounted roof-mounted signs in and announced that he would finance an additional bus service every year.

From now on, roof plates have been installed on all vehicle generations up the GT8N series and are still used today as an advertising platform. This step allowed for the first time advertising on the body's surface.

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